SRSD Empirical Research Studies

Below is a list of nearly 100 empirical studies* that show SRSD works.

*Over 70% are independent replications, done by researchers not associated with the developers of SRSD.

For a list of popular articles that provide a brief introduction to SRSD, click here.

If your school uses RtI/MTSS or is working to meet ESSA standards for “evidence-based practices”, then SRSD qualifies as such. 

The average effect size in empircal, published studies using SRSD is 1.57**. Any effect size above .40 is considered ‘above average’.

**Note: Schools working with thinkSRSD achieve an average effect size achieved near to 1.50.

TitleYearTopicsAgeLD
*Adkins, M. H. (2005). Self-regulated strategy development and generalization instruction: Effects on story writing among second and third grade students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Maryland, C2005Narrative8, 9EBD
*Albertson, L. R. (1998). A cognitive-behavioral intervention study: Assessing the effects of instruction on story writing. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Washington, Seattle, WA.1998Narrative
*Anderson, A. A. (1997). The effects of sociocognitive writing strategy instruction on the writing achievement and writing self-efficacy of students with disabilities and typical achievement in an urban elementary school. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Houston, Houston, TX.1997
*Asaro, K., & Saddler, B. (2010). Planning instruction and self-regulation training: Effects on writers with autism spectrum disorders. Exceptional Children, 77, 107-124.2010Narrative7, 8, 9ADD
*Berry, A., & Mason, L. H. (2010). The effects of self-regulated strategy development on the writing of expository essays for adults with written expression difficulties: Preparing for the GED, Remedial and Special Education2010Essayadult
*Brunstein, J. C., & Glaser, C. (2011). Testing a path-analytic mediation model of how self- regulated writing strategies improve upper-elementary school students’ composition skills: A randomized control trial. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103, 9222011Narrative9
1. Chalk, J. C., Hagan-Burke, S., & Burke, M. D. (2005). The effects of self-regulated strategy development on the writing process for high school students with learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 28 (1), 75-87.
*Cuenca-Sanchez, Y. (2010). Middle school students with emotional disorders: Determined to meet their needs through persuasive writing. Unpublished dissertation. George Mason University.2010Essay11, 12EBD
*Curry, K. A. (1997). A comparison of the writing products of students with learning disabilities in inclusive and resource room settings using different writing instruction approaches. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.1997
*Danoff, B., Harris, K. R., & Graham, S. (1993). Incorporating strategy instruction within the writing process in the regular classroom: Effects on the writing of students with and without learning disabilities. Journal of Reading and Behavior, 25, 295-3219939, 10Gen Ed, LD
*Delano, M. (2007a). Improving written language performance of adolescents with Asperger syndrome. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40, 345-351.200711, 12ASD
*Delano, M. (2007b). Use of strategy instruction to improve the story writing skills of a student with Asperger syndrome. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 22, 252-259. doi: 10.1177/1088357607022040701.2007NarrativeASD
*De La Paz, S. (1999). Self-regulated strategy instruction in regular education settings: Improving outcomes for students with and without learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 14, 92-106.199911, 12, 13Gen Ed, LD
*De La Paz, S. (2001). Teaching writing to students with attention deficit disorders and specific language impairment. The Journal of Educational Research, 95, 37-47.200111, 12. 13ADD, SLD
*De La Paz, S. (2005). Teaching historical reasoning and argumentative writing in culturally and academically diverse middle school classrooms. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97, 139-158.2005Essay11, 12, 13
*De La Paz, S., & Felton, M. (2010). Reading and writing from multiple source documents in history: Effects of strategy instruction with low to average high school writers. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 35, 174-192. doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2010.03.201014, 15, 16, 17Gen Ed
*De La Paz, S., & Graham, S. (1997). Effects of dictation and advanced planning instruction on the composing of students with writing and learning problems. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 203-222.1997EssayLD
*De La Paz, S., & Graham, S. (1997). Strategy instruction in planning: Effects o the writing performance and behavior of students with learning difficulties. Exceptional Children, 63, 167-181.1997
*De La Paz, S., & Graham, S. (2002). Explicitly teaching strategies, skills, and knowledge: Writing instruction in middle school classrooms. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 291-304.2002Essay11, 12, 13
De La Paz, S., Swanson, P., & Graham, S. (1998). The contribution of executive control to the revising of students with writing and learning difficulties. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 448-460.1998Essay13
*Fidalgo,R., Torrance, M., & Garcia, J. N. (2008). The long-term effects of strategy-focused writing instruction for grade six students. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33, 672-693.2008Essay12
*Garcia-Sanchez, J., & Fidlgo-Redondo, R. (2006). Effects of two types of self-regulatory instruction programs on students with learning disabilities in writing products, processes, and self-efficacy. Learning Disability Quarterly, 29, 181-211.2006Essay11, 12LD, LA
*Germain, J. C. (2004). Remediation of written expression deficits in an elementary school population. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, CO.2004
*Glaser, C., & Brunstein, J. (2007). Improving fourth-grade students’ composition skills: Effects of strategy instruction and self-regulation procedures, Journal of Educational Psychology, 99, 297-310.2007Narrative9
*Glaser, C., Budde, S., & Brunstein, J. (2011). Improving writing competence in fourth-grade classrooms: Effects of a teacher-implemented self-regulated writing program on studentsÕ strategy-related knowledge, planning skills, and writing performance. Unpublished paper.2011
Graham, S. (1997). Executive control in the revising of students with learning and writing difficulties. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 223-234.199710, 11
*Graham, S., & Harris, K. R. (1989a). Components analysis of cognitive strategy instruction: Effects on learning disables students’ compositions and self-efficacy. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 353-361.1989Essay10, 11
*Graham, S., & Harris, K. R. (1989b). Improving learning disabled students’ skills at composing essays: Self-instructional strategy training. Exceptional Children, 56, 201-214.1989Essay11, 12, 13
*Graham, S., Harris, K. R., & Mason, L. (2005). Improving the writing performance, knowledge, and self-efficacy of struggling young writers. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 30, 207-241.2005
*Graham, S., & MacArthur, C. (1988). Improving learning disabled students’ skills at revising essays produced on a word processor: Self-instructional strategy training. The Journal of Special Education, 22, 133-152.1988LD
*Graham, S., MacArthur, C., Schwartz, S., & Page-Voth, V. (1992). Improving the compositions of students with learning disabilities using a strategy involving product and process goal setting. Exceptional Children, 58, 322-334.1992Essay
*Guzel-Ozmen, R. (2006). The effectiveness of modified cognitive strategy instruction in writing with mildly mentally retarded Turkish students. Exceptional Children, 72, 281-297.2006
*Hacker, D., Dole, J., Ferguson, M., Adamson, S., Roundy, L., & Scarpulla, L. (2011). The short-term and long-term writing gains using self-regulated strategy development in middle school. Manuscript submitted for publication.201110, 11, 12
*Harris, K. R., & Graham, S. (1985). Improving learning disables students’ composition skills: Self-control strategy training. Learning Disability Quarterly, 8, 27-36.1986
*Harris, K. R., Graham, S., & Atkins, M. (2012). Tier 2, Teacher implemented writing strategies instruction following practice-based professional development. Manuscript submitted for publication.2013
*Harris, K. R., Graham, S., & Mason, L. (2006). Improving the writing knowledge and motivation of struggling young writers: Effects of self-regulated strategy development with and without peer support. American Educational Research Journal, 43, 295-340.2006Narrative, essay7
* Harris, K.R., Lane, K., Driscoll, S., Graham, S., Wilson, K., Sandmel, K., Brindle, M., & Schatschneider, C. (in press). Teacher-implemented class-wide writing intervention using Self-Elementary School Journal.2012Gen Ed, EBD
* Harris, K.R., Lane, K., Graham, S., Driscoll, S., Sandmel, K., Brindle, M., & Schatschneider, C. (in press) Practice-based professional development for strategies instruction in writing: A randomized controlled study. Journal of Teacher Education.20127, 8
*Jacobson, L. (2009). Improving the writing performance of high school students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and writing difficulties. Unpublished dissertation. University of Nebraska.200914, 15, 16, 17ADD
*Jacobson & Reid. (2010). Improving the expressive writing of high school with ADHD. Exceptional Children, 76, 361-377.201014, 15, 16, 17
Johnson, L., Graham, S., & Harris, K. R. (1997). The effects of goal setting and self-instruction on learning a reading comprehension strategy among students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 30, 80-91.1997
*Jones, K. (2001). The effectiveness of the self-regulated strategy development (SRSD) model when applied to the writing curriculum of seventh grade Belizean students with severe writing difficulties. Unpublished dissertation. Slippery Rock University of 200113
*Kiuhara, S., Harris, K., Graham, S., Brindle, M., & McKeown, D. (2011). Examining the effectiveness of Self-Regulated Strategy Instruction with an on-demand writing task. Unpublished manuscript.2011
*Kiuhara, S., O’Neil, R., Hawken, L., & Graham, S. (in press). The effectiveness of teaching 10th grade students STOP, AIMS, and DARE for planning and drafting persuasive text. Exceptional Children.201215Gen ed
*Konrad, M., & Test, D. (2007). Effects of GO 4 IT…NOW! Strategy instruction on the written ISP goal articulation and paragraph-writing skills of middle school students with disabilities. Remedial and Special Education, 28, 277-291.2007Essay
*Konrad, M., Trela, K., & Test, D. (2006). Using IEP goals and objective to teach paragraph writing to high school students with physical and cognitive disabilities. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 41, 111-124.2006Essay
*Korducki, R. A. (2001). An instructional program integrating strategies for composition and self-regulation: Effects on the English and Spanish Language writing skills of bilingual Latino students with learning difficulties. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. The University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI.2001Essay
*Lane, K., Graham, S., Harris, K. R., Little, M. A. Sandmel, K., & Brindle, M. (2010). Story writing: The effects of self-regulated strategy development for second grade students with writing and behavioral difficulties. The Journal of Special Education, 2010Narrative7
* Lane, K., Harris, K.R., Graham, S., Driscoll, S., Sandmel, K., Morphy, P., Hebert, M., & House, E. (2011). The Effects of Self-Regulated Strategy Development for Second-Grade Students with Writing and Behavioral Difficulties: A Randomized Control Trial.20117
House, E. (2011). The Effects of Self-Regulated Strategy Development for Second-Grade Students with Writing and Behavioral Difficulties: A Randomized Control Trial. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 4, 322-353.20117
*Lane, K., Harris, K. R., Graham, S., Weisenbach, J., Brindle, M., & Morphy, P. (2008). The effects of self-regulated strategy development on the writing performance of second grade students with behavioral and writing difficulties. The Journal of Special Education, 41, 234-253.20087
*Lewis, W., & Ferretti, R. (2011). Topoi and literary interpretation: The effects of a critical reading and writing intervention on high school students’ analytic literary essays. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 36, 334-354.2011Essay14, 15, 16, 17
*Li, D. (2000). Effect of story mapping and story map questions on the story writing performance of students with learning disabilities. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Texas Tech University
*Lienemann, T. O. (2006). Improving the writing performance of students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of NebraskaÑLincoln.
*Lienemann, T., Graham, S., Leader-Janssen, B., & Reid, R. (2006). Improving the writing performance of struggling writers in second grade. The Journal of Special Education, 40, 66-78.20067
*Lienemann, T. O., & Reid, R. (2008). Using self-regulated strategy development to improve expository writing with students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Exceptional Children, 74, 471-486.2008Essay
Limpo, T., Alves, R. A., & Fidalgo, R. (2013). Children's high-level writing skills: Development of planning and revising and their contribution to writing quality. British Journal of Educational Psychology
Limpo, T., & Alves, R. A. (2013b). Teaching planning or sentence-combining strategies: Effective SRSD interventions at different levels of written composition. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 38, 328-341
Limpo, T., & Alves, R. A. (2013a). Modeling writing development: Contribution of transcription and self-regulation to Portuguese studentsÕ text generation quality. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105, 401-413
*Little, A., Lane, K., Harris, K., Graham, S., Brindle, M., & Sandmel, K. (2010). Self-regulated strategies development for persuasive writing in tandem with schoolwide positive behavioral support: effects for second grade students with behavioral and writing difficulties. Behavioral Disorders, 35, 157-179.20107
Luschen, K., Kim, O., & Reid, R. (2011). Paraeducator-led strategy instruction for struggling writers. Submitted for publication.
MacArthur, C., & Graham, S. (1987). Learning disabled students' composing with three methods: Handwriting, dictation, and word processing. Journal of Special Education, 21, 22-42.1987
MacArthur, C., Graham, S., & Schwartz, S. (1991). Knowledge of revision and revising behavior among students with learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 14, 61-74.1991LD
*MacArthur, C., & Lembo, L. (2009). Strategy instruction in writing for adult literacy learners. Reading and Writing, 22, 1021-1039. doi: 10.1007/s11145-008-9142-x.2009
*MacArthur, C., & Philippakos, Z. (2010). Instruction in a strategy for compare-contrast writing. Exceptional Children, 76, 438-456. 2010Essay
*MacArthur, C. A., Schwartz, S. S., & Graham, S. (1991). Effects of reciprocal peer revision strategy in special education classrooms. Learning Disabilities Research, 6, 201-210.1991
*Mason, L. H., Kubina, R., & Hoover, T. (in press). Effects of quick writing instruction for high school students with emotional and behavioral disabilities. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.2013Essay
*Mason, L. H., Kubina, R. M., Kostewicz, D., Cramer, A. M., & Datchuk, S. (2011). Improving quick writing performance of middle school struggling learners. Unpublished manuscript.2011Essay11, 12, 13
*Mason, L. H., Kubina, R., & Taft, R. (2009). Developing quick writing skills of middle school students with disabilities. Journal of Special Education. J Spec Educ OnlineFirst, October 21, 2009. doi: 10.1177/0022466909350780. 2009Essay11, 12, 13
*Mason, L. H., Kubina, R., Valasa, L. L., & Cramer, A. (2010). Evaluating effective writing instruction of adolescent students in an emotional and/or behavioral support setting. Behavioral Disorders, 35, 140-156.2010
*Mason, L. H., Meadan, H., Hedin, L., & Cramers, A. (in press). A qualitative examination of intervention effects on studentsÕ motivation for reading and writing. Reading and Writing Quarterly.
*Mason, L. H., & Shriner, J. (2008). Self-regulated strategy development instruction for six elementary students with emotional behavioral disorders. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 21, 71-93.2008Essay7, 10EBD
*Mason, L. H., Snyder, K. H., Sukhram, D. P., & Kedem, Y. (2006). TWA + PLANS strategies for expository reading and writing: Effects for nine fourth-grade students. Exceptional Children, 73, 69-89.2006Essay9
*Mastropieri, M., Scruggs, T., Mills, S., Cerar, N., Cuenca-Sanchez, Y., Allen-Bronaugh, D., & Regan, K. (2009). Persuading students with emotional disabilities to write fluently. Behavioral Disorders, 35, 19-40.2009Essay
*Meltzer, L. (2006). The effects of co-constructed strategy instruction versus teacher-directed strategy instruction on the writing performance of students with learning and writing problems and their higher achieving peers. Unpublished dissertation. Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN.2006
*Montague, M., & Leavell, A. G. (1994). Improving the narrative writing of students with learning disabilities. Remedial and Special Education, 15, 21Ð33
*Mourad, A. (2009). The effectiveness of a program based on self-regulated strategy development on the writing skills of writing-disabled secondary school students. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology. 7(17), 5-24.200914, 15, 16, 17
*Reid, R., & Lienemann, T. O. (2006). Self-regulated strategy development for written expression with students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Exceptional Children, 73, 53-68.2006
Reynolds, G. A., & Perin, D. (2009). A comparison of text structure and self-regulated writing strategies for composing from sources by middle school students. Reading Psychology, 30, 265-300.
*Rogevich, M., & Perin, D. (2008). Effects on science summarization of a reading comprehension intervention for adolescents with behavioral and attentional disorders. Exceptional Children 74, 135-154.2008EssayEBD, LD
*Saddler, B. (2006). Increasing story-writing ability through self-regulated strategy development: Effects on young writers with learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 29, 291-305.20067
*Saddler, B., & Asaro, K. (2007) Increasing story writing ability through self-regulated strategy development and revising practice: Effects on young writers with learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 30, 223-234.20077, 8
*Saddler, B., Moran, S., Graham, S., & Harris, K. R. (2004). Preventing writing difficulties: The effects of planning strategy instruction on the writing performance of struggling writers. Exceptionality, 12, 3-17.20047
*Sandmel, K., Wilson, K., Harris, K. R., Lane, K., Graham, S., Oakes, W., Kiuhara, S., & Steinbrecher, T., (2011). Success and failure with Tier 2 SRSD for timed writing tests among 2nd and 5th grade students with writing and behavioral difficulties: Implications for evidence-based practices. In T. Scruggs & M. Mastropieri (Eds.), Advances in Learning and Behavioral Difficulties: Assessment and Intervention, 24, 251-294. Bingley, UK: England.20117, 10
*Sawyer, R., Graham, S., & Harris, K. R. (1992) Direct teaching, strategy instruction and strategy instruction with explicit self-regulation: Effects on the composition skills and self-efficacy of students with learning disabilities. Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol 84(3), Sep 1992, 340-3521992Essay11, 12
*Schnee, A. (2010). Student writing performance: Identifying the effects when combining planning and revising instructional strategies. Unpublished dissertation. The University of Nebraska-Lincoln.2010Narrative8, 9, 10
*Schneider, A. (2010). Comparing and combining accommodation and remediation interventions to improve the written language performance of children with Asperger's syndrome. Unpublished dissertation. City University of New York.2010
*Scott, T. D. T. (2009) The effectiveness of the response-to-intervention process for at-risk high school students. Unpublished dissertation. Capella University.2009
*Sexton, M., Harris, K. R., & Graham, S. (1998). Self-regulated strategy development and the writing process: Effects on essay writing and attributions. Exceptional Children, 64, 295-311.1998Essay
*Stoddard, B., & MacArthur, C. A. (1993). A peer editor strategy: Guiding learning-disabled students in response and revision. Research in the Teaching of English, 27, 76-103.1993
*Torrance, M., Fidalgo, R., & Garcia, J. (2007). The teachability and effectiveness of cognitive self-regulation in sixth-grade writers. Learning and Instruction, 17, 265-285.2007Narrattive11
*Tracy, B., Reid, R., & Graham, S. (2009). Teaching young students strategies for planning and drafting stories: The impact of self-regulated strategy development. Journal of Educational Research, 102, 323-329.2009Narrative7, 8
*Trela, K. (2008). The effects of I write now strategy on high school students with significant cognitive disabilities participation in composing an opinion paragraph. Unpublished dissertation. University of North Carolina at Charlotte.2008Essay
*Troia, G., Graham, S., & Harris, K. R. (1999). Teaching students with learning disabilities to mindfully plan when writing. Exceptional Children, 65, 235-252.1999essay10
Wehmeyer, M. L., Yeaer, D., Bolding, N., Agran, M., & Hughes, C. (2003). The effects of self-regulation strategies on goal attainment for students with developmental disabilities in general education classrooms. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities 15(1):79-91
*Wong, B. Y. L, Hoskyn, M., Jai, D., Ellis, P., & Watson, K. (2008). The comparative efficacy of two approaches to teaching sixth graders opinion essay writing. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 111, 57-63.2008Essay11
*Zumbrunn, S. (2010). Nurturing young students’ writing knowledge, self-regulation, attitudes, and self-efficacy: The effects of self-regulated strategy development. Unpublished dissertation. University of Nebraska.2010Narrative6